The betterment of the world

"The betterment of the world," is yet another statement, "can be accomplished through pure and goodly deeds, through commendable andseemly conduct." "Be fair to yourselves and to others," He thus counseleth them, "that the evidences of justice may be revealedthrough your deeds among Our faithful servants." "Equity," He also has written, "is the most fundamental among human virtues. The evaluationof all things must needs depend upon it." And again, "Observe equity in your judgment, ye men of understanding heart! He that is unjust inhis judgment is destitute of the characteristics that distinguish man's station." "Beautify your tongues, O people," He furtheradmonishes them, "with truthfulness, and adorn your souls with the ornament of honesty. Beware, O people, that ye deal not treacherouslywith anyone. Be ye the trustees of God amongst His creatures, and the emblems of His generosity amidst His people." "Let your eye bechaste," is yet another counsel, "your hand faithful, your tongue truthful, and your heart enlightened." "Be an ornament to thecountenance of truth," is yet another admonition, "a crown to the brow of fidelity, a pillar of the temple of righteousness, a breath of lifeto the body of mankind, an ensign of the hosts of justice, a luminary above the horizon of virtue." "Let truthfulness and courtesy be youradorning," is still another admonition; "suffer not yourselves to be deprived of the robe of forbearance and justice, that the sweet savorsof holiness may be wafted from your hearts upon all created things. Say: Beware, O people of Baha, lest ye walk in the ways of them whosewords differ from their deeds. Strive that ye may be enabled to manifest to the peoples of the earth the signs of God, and to mirrorforth His commandments. Let your acts be a guide unto all mankind, for the professions of most men, be they high or low, differ from theirconduct. It is through your deeds that ye can distinguish yourselves from others. Through them the brightness of your light can be shedupon the whole earth. Happy is the man that heedeth My counsel, and keepeth the precepts prescribed by Him Who is the All-Knowing, theAll-Wise."

A rectitude of conduct,

A rectitude of conduct, an abiding sense of undeviating justice, unobscured by the demoralizing influences which a corruption-ridden political life so strikingly manifests; a chaste, pure, and holy life, unsullied and unclouded by the indecencies, the vices, the false standards, which an inherently deficient moral code tolerates, perpetuates, and fosters; a fraternity freed from that cancerous growth of racial prejudice, which is eating into the vitals of an already debilitated society—these are the ideals which the American believers must, from now on, individually and through concerted action, strive to promote, in both their private and public lives, ideals which are the chief propelling forces that can most effectively accelerate the march of their institutions, plans, and enterprises, that can guard the honor and integrity of their Faith, and subdue any obstacles that may confront it in the future.

This rectitude of conduct, with its implications of justice, equity, truthfulness, honesty, fair-mindedness, reliability, and trustworthiness, mustdistinguish every phase of the life of the Baha'i community. "The companions of God," Baha'u'llah Himself has declared, "are, in this day, the lumpthat must leaven the peoples of the world. They must show forth such trustworthiness, such truthfulness and perseverance, such deeds and characterthat all mankind may profit by their example." "I swear by Him Who is the Most Great Ocean!" He again affirms, "Within the very breath of such soulsas are pure and sanctified far-reaching potentialities are hidden. So great are these potentialities that they exercise their influence upon allcreated things." "He is the true servant of God," He, in another passage has written, "who, in this day, were he to pass through cities of silver andgold, would not deign to look upon them, and whose heart would remain pure and undefiled from whatever things can be seen in this world, be they itsgoods or its treasures. I swear by the Sun of Truth! The breath of such a man is endowed with potency, and his words with attraction."

Words of Wisdom ....

  • The source of all good is trust in God, submission unto His command, and contentment with His holy will and pleasure.
  • The essence of wisdom is the fear of God, the dread of His scourge and punishment, and the apprehension of His justice and decree.
  • The essence of religion is to testify unto that which the Lord hath revealed, and follow that which He hath ordained in His mighty Book.
  • The source of all glory is acceptance of whatsoever the Lord hath bestowed, and contentment with that which God hath ordained.
  • The essence of love is for man to turn his heart to the Beloved One, and sever himself from all else but Him, and desire naught save that which is the desire of his Lord.
  • The source of courage and power is the promotion of the Word of God, and steadfastness in His Love.
  • The essence of faith is fewness of words and abundance of deeds; he whose words exceed his deeds, know verily his death is better than his life.
 Words of Wisdom, Bahá'u'lláh

... trustworthiness, truthfulness, purity of heart

The virtues and attributes pertaining unto God are all evident and manifest, and have been mentioned and described in all the heavenly Books. Among them are trustworthiness, truthfulness, purity of heart while communing with God, forbearance, resignation to whatever the Almighty hath decreed, contentment with the things His Will hath provided, patience, nay, thankfulness in the midst of tribulation, and complete reliance, in all circumstances, upon Him. These rank, according to the estimate of God, among the highest and most laudable of all acts. All other acts are, and will ever remain, secondary and subordinate unto them....

The purpose of the one true God in manifesting Himself is to summon all mankind to truthfulness and sincerity, to piety and trustworthiness, to resignation and submissiveness to the Will of God, to forbearance and kindliness, to uprightness and wisdom. His object is to array every man with the mantle of a saintly character, and to adorn him with the ornament of holy and goodly deeds. 

"Gleanings from the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh"

O concourse of the rulers of the world!

Behold the disturbances which, for many a long year, have afflicted the earth, and the perturbation that hath seized its peoples. It hath either been ravaged by war, or tormented by sudden and unforeseen calamities. Though the world is encompassed with misery and distress, yet no man hath paused to reflect what the cause or source of that may be. Whenever the True Counsellor uttered a word in admonishment, lo, they all denounced Him as a mover of mischief and rejected His claim. How bewildering, how confusing is such behavior! No two men can be found who may be said to be outwardly and inwardly united. The evidences of discord and malice are apparent everywhere, though all were made for harmony and union. The Great Being saith: O well-beloved ones! The tabernacle of unity hath been raised; regard ye not one another as strangers. Ye are the fruits of one tree, and the leaves of one branch. We cherish the hope that the light of justice may shine upon the world and sanctify it from tyranny. If the rulers and kings of the earth, the symbols of the power of God, exalted be His glory, arise and resolve to dedicate themselves to whatever will promote the highest interests of the whole of humanity, the reign of justice will assuredly be established amongst the children of men, and the effulgence of its light will envelop the whole earth. The Great Being saith: The structure of world stability and order hath been reared upon, and will continue to be sustained by, the twin pillars of reward and punishment....
In another passage He hath written: Take heed, O concourse of the rulers of the world! There is no force on earth that can equal in its conquering power the force of justice and wisdom....
Blessed is the king who marcheth with the ensign of wisdom unfurled before him, and the battalions of justice massed in his rear. He verily is the ornament that adorneth the brow of peace and the countenance of security. There can be no doubt whatever that if the day star of justice, which the clouds of tyranny have obscured, were to shed its light upon men, the face of the earth would be completely transformed.

 Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá'u'lláh

O ye the elected representatives of the people in every land!

How true are these words of Baha'ullah taday. 

O ye the elected representatives of the people in every land! Take ye counsel together, and let your concern be only for that which profiteth mankind, and bettereth the condition thereof, if ye be of them that scan heedfully. Regard the world as the human body which, though at its creation whole and perfect, hath been afflicted, through various causes, with grave disorders and maladies. Not for one day did it gain ease, nay its sickness waxed more severe, as it fell under the treatment of ignorant physicians, who gave full rein to their personal desires, and have erred grievously. And if, at one time, through the care of an able physician, a member of that body was healed, the rest remained afflicted as before. Thus informeth you the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.

We behold it, in this day, at the mercy of rulers so drunk with pride that they cannot discern clearly their own best advantage, much less recognize a Revelation so bewildering and challenging as this. And whenever any one of them hath striven to improve its condition, his motive hath been his own gain, whether confessedly so or not; and the unworthiness of this motive hath limited his power to heal or cure.

Pay thou no heed to the humiliation to which...

Pay thou no heed to the humiliation to which the loved ones of God have in this Day been subjected. This humiliation is the pride and glory of all temporal honor and worldly elevation. What greater honor can be imagined than the honor conferred by the Tongue of the Ancient of Days when He calleth to remembrance His loved ones in His Most Great Prison? The day is approaching when the intervening clouds will have been completely dissipated, when the light of the words, “All honor belongeth unto God and unto them that love Him,” will have appeared, as manifest as the sun, above the horizon of the Will of the Almighty.

All men, be they high or low, have sought and are still seeking so great an honor. All, however, have, as soon as the Sun of Truth shed its radiance upon the world, been deprived of its benefits, and have been shut out as by a veil from its glory, except them that have clung to the cord of the unfailing providence of the one true God, and have with complete detachment from all else but Him turned their faces towards His holy court.
Render thanks unto Him Who is the Desire of all worlds for having invested thee with such high honor. Ere long the world and all that is therein shall be as a thing forgotten, and all honor shall belong to the loved ones of thy Lord, the All-Glorious, the Most Bountiful.

Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh.

Let truthfulness and courtesy be your adorning

By the righteousness of God! The world and its vanities, and its glory, and whatever delights it can offer, are all, in the sight of God, as worthless as, nay, even more contemptible than, dust and ashes. Would that the hearts of men could comprehend it! Cleanse yourselves thoroughly, O people of Bahá, from the defilement of the world, and of all that pertaineth unto it.
That which beseemeth you is the love of God, and the love of Him Who is the Manifestation of His Essence, and the observance of whatsoever He chooseth to prescribe unto you, did ye but know it.
 Say: Let truthfulness and courtesy be your adorning. Suffer not yourselves to be deprived of the robe of forbearance and justice, that the sweet savors of holiness may be wafted from your hearts upon all created things. Say: Beware, O people of Bahá, lest ye walk in the ways of them whose words differ from their deeds.
Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh

Thou art the Ever-Forgiving.

I am a sinner, O my Lord, and Thou art the Ever-Forgiving. As soon as I recognized Thee, I hastened to attain the exalted court of Thy loving-kindness. Forgive me, O my Lord, my sins which have hindered me from walking in the ways of Thy good pleasure, and from attaining the shores of the ocean of Thy oneness.
There is no one, O my Lord, who can deal bountifully with me to whom I can turn my face, and none who can have compassion on me that I may crave his mercy. Cast me not out, I implore Thee, of the presence of Thy grace, neither do Thou withhold from me the outpourings of Thy generosity and bounty. Ordain for me, O my Lord, what Thou hast ordained for them that love Thee, and write down for me what Thou hast written down for Thy chosen ones. My gaze hath, at all times, been fixed on the horizon of Thy gracious providence, and mine eyes bent upon the court of Thy tender mercies. Do with me as beseemeth Thee. No God is there but Thee, the God of power, the God of glory, Whose help is implored by all men.
~ Bahá’u’lláh

the integrity of your life

Letter to the 18 first believers, spiritual dawn-breakers called the Letters of the Living, from The Bab (meaning The Gate), Herald of the Baha'i Faith.

"O My beloved friends! You are the bearers of the name of God in this Day. You have been chosen as the repositories of His mystery. It behoves each one of you to manifest the attributes of God, and to exemplify by your deeds and words the signs of His righteousness, His power and glory. The very members of your body must bear witness to the loftiness of your purpose, the integrity of your life, the reality of your faith, and the exalted character of your devotion. For verily I say, this is the Day spoken of by God in His Book:[1] 'On that day will We set a seal upon their mouths yet shall their hands speak unto Us, and their feet shall bear witness to that which they shall have done.' Ponder the words of Jesus addressed to His disciples, as He sent them forth to propagate the Cause of God. In words such as these, He bade them arise and fulfil their mission: 'Ye are even as the fire which in the darkness of the night has been kindled upon the mountain-top. Let your light shine before the eyes of men. Such must be the purity of your character and the degree of your renunciation, that the people of the earth may through you recognize and be drawn closer to the heavenly Father who is the Source of purity and grace. For none has seen the Father who is in heaven. You who are His spiritual children must by your deeds exemplify His virtues, and witness to His glory. You are the salt of the earth, but if the salt have lost its savour, wherewith shall it be salted?' . . .

O My Letters! Verily I say, immensely exalted is this Day above the days of the Apostles of old. Nay, immeasurable is the difference! You are the witnesses of the Dawn of the promised Day of God. You are the partakers of the mystic chalice of His Revelation. Gird up the loins of endeavour, and be mindful of the words of God as revealed in His Book:[2] 'Lo, the Lord thy God is come, and with Him is the company of His angels arrayed before Him!' Purge your hearts of worldly desires, and let angelic virtues be your adorning. Strive that by your deeds you may bear witness to the truth of these words of God, and beware lest, by 'turning back,' He may 'change you for another people,' who 'shall not be your like,' and who shall take from you the Kingdom of God. The days when idle worship was deemed sufficient are ended. The time is come when naught but the purest motive, supported by deeds of stainless purity, can ascend to the throne of the Most High and be acceptable unto Him. 'The good word riseth up unto Him, and the righteous deed will cause it to be exalted before Him.' You are the lowly, of whom God has thus spoken in His Book:[3] "And We desire to show favour to those who were brought low in the land, and to make them spiritual leaders among men, and to make them Our heirs.' You have been called to this station; you will attain to it, only if you arise to trample beneath your feet every earthly desire, and endeavour to become those 'honoured servants of His who speak not till He hath spoken, and who do His bidding.' You are the first Letters that have been generated from the Primal Point,[4] the first Springs that have welled out from the Source of this Revelation. Beseech the Lord your God to grant that no earthly entanglements, no worldly affections, no ephemeral pursuits, may tarnish the purity, or embitter the sweetness, of that grace which flows through you. I am preparing you for the advent of a mighty Day. Exert your utmost endeavour that, in the world to come, I, who am now instructing you, may, before the mercy-seat of God, rejoice in your deeds and glory in your achievements. . . ."

[1 The Qur'án.]

[2 The Qur'án.]

[3 The Qur'án.]

[4 One of the Báb's titles.]

The purpose of religion ....

The purpose of religion as revealed from the heaven of God's holy Willis to establish unity and concord amongst the peoples of the world;make it not the cause of dissension and strife.  The religion ofGod and His divine law are the most potent instruments and the surestof all means for the dawning of the light of unity amongst men. The progress of the world, the development of nations, the tranquillityof peoples, and the peace of all who dwell on earth are among theprinciples and ordinances of God.  Religion bestoweth upon man themost precious of all gifts, offereth the cup of prosperity, impartetheternal life, and showereth imperishable benefits upon mankind. Baha'u'llah

The purpose of all the divine religions is the establishment of thebonds of love and fellowship among men, and the heavenly phenomena ofthe revealed Word of God are intended to be a source of knowledge andillumination to humanity.  So long as man persists in hisadherence to ancestral forms and imitation of obsolete ceremonials,denying higher revelations of the divine light in the world, strife andcontention will destroy the purpose of religion and make love andfellowship impossible.  Each of the holy Manifestations announcedthe glad tidings of His successor, and each One confirmed the messageof His predecessor.  Therefore, inasmuch as They were agreed andunited in purpose and teaching, it is incumbent upon Their followers tobe likewise unified in love and spiritual fellowship.  In no otherway will discord and alienation disappear and the oneness of the worldof humanity be established.

(LATEST) Be The Change You Want To See

As Bahá'ís, having faith in the betterment of the world is very important. The quotation shown in the beginning of the video reminds us to not only show our faith in God through words alone; rather our lives should animate our belief through deeds and actions. The idea for this video came together when a group of youth met for a weekend and decided to make a song to show how faith inspires them. The first day was dedicated to inspiring workshops, brainstorming, writing and recording. The second day was spent filming and final critiques. This is the result!

We thank you for giving us the opportunity to express our faith and look forward to seeing the other diversity of videos submitted.

Edited by:

Nadim Merrikh

It hath been decreed by Us that the Word…

It hath been decreed by Us that the Wordof God and all the potentialities thereof shall be manifested unto men in strict conformity with such conditions as have been foreordained by Him Who is the All-Knowing, the All-Wise. We have, moreover, ordained that its veil of concealment be none other except its own Self. Such indeed is Our Power to achieve Our Purpose. Should the Word be allowed to release suddenly all the energies latent within it, no man could sustain the weight of so mighty a Revelation. Nay, all that is in heaven and on earth would flee in consternation before it.
Consider that which hath been sent down unto Muḥammad, the Apostle of God. The measure of the Revelation of which He was the bearer had been clearly foreordained by Him Who is the Almighty, the All-Powerful. They that heard Him, however, could apprehend His purpose only to the extent of their station and spiritual capacity. He, in like manner, uncovered the Face of Wisdom in proportion to their ability to sustain the burden of His Message. No sooner had mankind attained the stage of maturity, than the Word revealed to men’s eyes the latent energies with which it had been endowed—energies which manifested themselves in the plenitude of their glory when the Ancient Beauty appeared, in the year sixty, in the person of ‘Alí-Muḥammad, the Báb. 

Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh


The purpose of God in creating man hath been,

The purpose of God in creating man hathbeen, and will ever be, to enable him to know his Creator and to attain His Presence. To this most excellent aim, this supreme objective, all the heavenly Books and the divinely-revealed and weighty Scriptures unequivocally bear witness. Whoso hath recognized the Day Spring of Divine guidance and entered His holy court hath drawn nigh unto God and attained His Presence, a Presence which is the real Paradise, and of which the loftiest mansions of heaven are but a symbol. Such a man hath attained the knowledge of the station of Him Who is “at the distance of two bows,” Who standeth beyond the Sadratu’l-Muntahá. Whoso hath failed to recognize Him will have condemned himself to the misery of remoteness, a remoteness which is naught but utter nothingness and the essence of the nethermost fire. Such will be his fate, though to outward seeming he may occupy the earth’s loftiest seats and be established upon its most exalted throne. This principle hath operated in each of the previous Dispensations and been abundantly demonstrated…. It is for this reason that, in every age, when a new Manifestation hath appeared and a fresh revelation of God’s transcendent power was vouchsafed unto men.

Bahá'u'lláh Gleanings From the Writings of Bahá’u’lláh

There are two mighty banners which ...

There are two mighty banners which, when they cast their shadow across the crown of any king, will cause the influence of his government quickly and easily to penetrate the whole earth, even as if it were the light of the sun: the first of these two banners is wisdom; the second is justice. Against these two most potent forces, the iron hills cannot prevail, and Alexander’s wall will break before them. It is clear that life in this fast-fading world is as fleeting and inconstant as the morning wind, and this being so, how fortunate are the great who leave a good name behind them, and the memory of a lifetime spent in the pathway of the good pleasure of God.

`Abdu'l-Bahá The Secret of Divine Civilization

True civilization will unfurl its banner in ....

True civilization will unfurl its banner in the midmost heart of the world whenever a certain number of its distinguished and high-minded sovereigns—the shining exemplars of devotion and determination—shall, for the good and happiness of all mankind, arise, with firm resolve and clear vision, to establish the Cause of Universal Peace. They must make the Cause of Peace the object of general consultation, and seek by every means in their power to establish a Union of the nations of the world. They must conclude a binding treaty and establish a covenant, the provisions of which shall be sound, inviolable and definite. They must proclaim it to all the world and obtain for it the sanction of all the human race. This supreme and noble undertaking—the real source of the peace and well-being of all the world—should be regarded as sacred by all that dwell on earth. All the forces of humanity must be mobilized to ensure the stability and permanence of this Most Great Covenant. In this all-embracing Pact the limits and frontiers of each and every nation should be clearly fixed, the principles underlying the relations of governments towards one another definitely laid down, and all international agreements and obligations ascertained.
In like manner, the size of the armaments of every government should be strictly limited, for if the preparations for war and the military forces of any nation should be allowed to increase, they will arouse the suspicion of others. The fundamental principle underlying this solemn Pact should be so fixed that if any government later violate any one of its provisions, all the governments on earth should arise to reduce it to utter submission, nay the human race as a whole should resolve, with every power at its disposal, to destroy that government. Should this greatest of all remedies be applied to the sick body of the world, it will assuredly recover from its ills and will remain eternally safe and secure.

`Abdu'l-Bahá The Secret of Divine Civilization

Looking through the Oxford Dictionary of Science

Somewhere where they receive a lot more sunny weather than Greater Vancouver...

A. Looking through the Oxford Dictionary of Science

Even as this is primarily a blog that deals with theology, philosophy of religion, Biblical studies and satire, scientific issues do arise as well and are of course important. Education and academics today do require at least at times the learning of disciplines outside of one's areas of expertise. Somewhat similarly my PhD thesis was completed within a Religion and Theology Department, but the content, as was the MPhil thesis, was as much philosophy/philosophy of religion and it was theology as it primarily dealt with the topics of the problem of evil and theodicy. As well I was required to do some research into empirical theology and social research which included statistics, and also researched how empirical theology related to science. With post viva revisions I was required to research some scientific journals on the subject of consciousness. Even without completing science course work and degrees I have done at least some science research in my academic career and reason I need to keep learning about science particularly in how it relates to the main disciplines I study. The origin of humanity is a topic/subject, for one, that can cover the disciplines of Biblical studies, theology, philosophy, and of course science.

Being quite pleased with the Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy and the Oxford Dictionary of the Bible which I use, I bought on discount with damaged beat up cover the Oxford Dictionary of Science. Yes, I had to ask for the discount and all sales are final, but the price was right. Interestingly, unlike the other two texts this has no author on the cover, although there is a listing with Editors, Advisers, and Contributors provided on a credits page. I have bought other science texts during my academic career and been given other texts, but this text will be particularly helpful for blogging in its dictionary form and its size in larger than the other two Oxford volumes put together.

Oxford Dictionary of Science, (2010), Sixth Edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Interesting how the definition differs for entropy for example in the science text, compared to the philosophy text, a term and subject that would be discussed across disciplines even in theology at times:

From the Science Dictionary: Symbol (S) a measure of the unavailability of a systems energy to do work; in a closed system an increase in entropy is accomplished by a decrease in energy available. When a system undergoes change the entropy (S) changes by the amount equal the energy (Q) transferred to the system by heat divided by the thermodynamic temperature (T) at which this occurs. However, all real processes are to a certain extent irreversible changes and in any closed system an irreversible change is accompanied by an increase in entropy. (292).

In a wider sense entropy is interpreted as a measure of disorder, the higher the entropy, the greater the disorder and it states see the Boltzmann Formula. This is the second law of thermodynamics and involves the heat death of the universe. (292).

Simon Blackburn provides a less technical definition and agrees entropy is a property of a closed thermodynamical system. Entropy is a measure of the disorder in the system. He reasons the second law of thermodynamics states entropy always increases. Basically, a useful philosophical summation is provided. Blackburn (1996: 121).

BLACKBURN, SIMON (1996) Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

Also in the huge 889 page science volume:

Evolution: Interestingly the text theorized 3000 million (3 billion) years of evolution and explains that up until the middle of the 18th century there was the generally intellectually accepted concept that God created living species. The text then goes on to claim Darwinian natural selection which it states is supported by modern genetics, for example. But, it admits, and I find this quite interesting, that evolution as theory is quite controversial and needs to be firmly clarified in regard to relationships of groups above the species level (304).

All in all a useful text that I will be using as a tool for blogging.

Christian scientific site I am familiar with:

Reasons to Believe

Also Jeff Jenkins of Thoughts and Theology has been showing some clips from Exploration Films lately:

Exploration Films

B. Various

'Classic' high-pitched voice guru. No, all religions are not the same.

If you find the music annoying (one vote from me) you can of course turn the volume down on YouTube.

On the web this is noted as supposedly in India, the home of technical support for many home computer owners. Does potential electrical fire come to mind?

(Image from

Thanks, Jeff


The Vancouver Sun: Bert & Ernie wedding: Sesame Street says no

'Are wedding bells in the cards for Sesame Street's Bert and Ernie, roommates in the iconic children's TV show who have long been rumoured to be gay?

There's an online petition at the activism website, with more than 5,000 signatures, which is calling for such a union, or for something else to happen on the show to teach kids that having a different sexual orientation is OK.

"Even though they are identified as male characters and possess many human traits and characteristics . . . they remain puppets and do not have a sexual orientation."'

I just heard about this on Albert Mohler's Podcast.

In regard to this article I think it is okay for kids to reason that the puppets are asexual/nonsexual. I think it is okay to let children figure it for themselves minus some political/moral agenda.

August 20, 2011

C. Age of the universe the Oxford Dictionary of Science

Having received a reasonable number of comments this month I return to the main topic. The text under this entry states that the age of the universe is the reciprocal value of the Hubble constant ( which is the rate at which the velocity of recession of galaxies increases with distance... Hubble time is a measure of age of universe assuming that expansion rate has remained constant, and it is assumed the expansion of the universe is accelerating. p 400). The Hubble constant according to the Oxford text is assumed to be 13.7 billion years old. p 18. But, it is admitted that the calculation of the Hubble constant and the age of the universe will depend of what theory of cosmology is used. They state that it is usually tied to calculations concerning the expansion of the universe arising from a big-bang theory. p. 18.

I deduce from this entry there is room for some debate in regard to the age of the universe, even from a secular scientific perspective in regard to cosmology which does overlap with the field of philosophy which of course overlaps with the field of theology.